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CHAPTER 1

Text Analysis (part II)

What is the text Style?

Click on the [Text Style] line of the Result frame, or use the [Show][Text Style] menu.

The software makes a diagnosis of the Text Style and of its Setting according to the statistical indicators retrieved during the analysis.

Here are the possible Styles:

Style

Explanation:

Argumentative

the speaker involves himself, argues, explains or analyzes in order to try to convince the interlocutor

Narrative

a narrator states a series of events, happening at a given time, and in a given place

Enunciative

the speaker and the interlocutor establish a mutual relation of influence, make their standpoints known

Descriptive

a narrator describes, identifies or classifies something or somebody

Here are the possible verbal Settings:

Setting

The Setting is expressed by means of:

Dynamic, action

action verbs

In the real

verbs conveying the idea of being and having

Involving the narrator

verbs helping to make a statement about a given state, an action

Involving with “I”

numerous pronouns in the first person singular (“I”, “me”, “myself”, …)

Also, you will immediately know whether or not notions (adverbs) of doubt have been detected.

To obtain an explanation of the displayed Style (or of the Setting), click on the line concerned: a color display in the main window will show you all the words whose categories have been taken into account to make the diagnosis.

The study of the Text Style and of the Setting of a text written by you (directly or indirectly) is especially interesting when the software makes a diagnosis that proves contrary to your purposes. For instance, you will presumably want to find out why the Style has been detected as [argumentative] when it was not intended to be. Likewise, you will probably try to avoid as much as possible the Settings [involving with “I”] if your text is written on behalf of a group, or to rule out all [notions of doubt] from a financial offer, a contract, etc.

Important note: since the analyses are carried out on a statistical basis, the studied texts must be of sufficient length for the results to be significant.

Most characteristic parts of text

To display the Most characteristic parts of text, click on the [nn most characteristic parts of text] line of the [Text Style].

The contraction of the text reveals the Most characteristic parts of text. These are “propositions introducing main themes or characters, expressing events that are essential to the progression of the story (causal attributions of consequences, results, aims)”.

To extract these propositions, Tropes carries out a complex Cognitive-Discursive Analysis processing (CDA). To simplify matters, let us say that each proposition of the text is allotted a score, depending on its relative weight, its occurrence order and its argumentative role. The propositions are then sorted out according to their respective scores. To enable you to control the amount of displayed propositions, and to insure that the result obtained reflects the text analyzed, Tropes provides the means to adjust the contraction rate of the text (see Analysis options below).

It must be stressed that the Most characteristic parts of text offer significance only when studying a monolithic and structured discourse, of moderate length. In no circumstances will they constitute a summary of the text (this would require a rewriting of the text).


Reference fields

Click on the [Reference fields 1] line of the Result frame, or use the [Show][Reference fields 1] menu.

This function displays, in decreasing frequency, the Reference fields of the words in the text. Each line consists of a field, preceded by a counter showing the number of words contained within this particular field. Only significant fields are displayed.

The Reference fields represent the context and group together the main substantives of the text analyzed into Equivalent classes. The software detects the Reference fields by using two different representation levels of the context (Reference fields 1 and 2).

To view the content of a field, select this field and all the words that comprise it will then be displayed in red in the main window.

Note: to detect these Reference fields, the software uses a semantic equivalents dictionary which does not contain all of the English words (see Note on Equivalent classes below); only the most significant substantives of your text will be displayed, along with some proper nouns.

References: what is the text about?

Click on the [References] line of the Result frame, or use the [Show][References] command.

This function displays, in decreasing frequency, the References of the words in the text. Each line consists of a Reference, preceded by a counter showing the number of words contained within this particular Reference. Only significant References are displayed.

The References group together closely related common and proper nouns into Equivalent classes (for example, "father" and "mother" are grouped together into the "family" class).

To view the content of a class, click on this class and all the words that comprise it will then be displayed in red in the main window.

Actors: Actants and Acted

This option enables you to tell the position of the Reference fields (higher level Equivalent classes) and of the References (lower level Equivalent classes, see below); both being generally placed either as:

When checking one of these boxes only, the list shows the number of times (percentage between parentheses) the corresponding class has been in the position of Actant in the studied text. The same counter will appear when you print the classes list.

To get back to the standard display, check both the [Actants] and [Acted] boxes.

The identification of Actants and Acted constitutes one of the essential steps in text analysis. As a matter of fact, when a significant Reference field (or a Reference) clearly appears in the position of Actant (percentage above 60 %), it is assumed that the notion it represents carries out the action. Otherwise, when a significant field (or a Reference) clearly appears in the position of Acted, it is assumed that the notion it represents is subjected to the action.

Which elements are frequently connected?

Click on the [Relations] line of the Result frame, or use the [Show][Relations] command.

This function displays, in decreasing frequency, the strong Relations between the various Equivalent classes. Each Relation is preceded by a counter showing its occurrence frequency within the studied text.

The Relations show which Equivalent classes are frequently connected (i.e. found in the same proposition) within the text analyzed.

To display the propositions corresponding to a given Relation, click on the line of your choice.

Relations are oriented according to the occurrence order of the words comprising them.

By default, Relations are built on the References. It is possible to define the construction level of the Relations by using the [Tools][Analysis options] command (see Analysis options below).

There is little room for chance in the display of Relations: finding two Equivalent classes several times in the same text in the same order is indeed unlikely to happen. When it does, it means that these two classes are strongly connected, and this reveals the notions emphasized by the author of the text (but not necessarily what he intended to put into the text).

The display of the Reference fields, of the References and of their Relations brings you to the heart of the discourse: all the actors, objects, things and concepts presented in the text will appear before you in decreasing order of importance.


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